Un manuel numérique, qu’est-ce que c’est ?
Il est un farouche partisan de la flexi-sécurité, cause de précarité et de pauvreté de masse. Il opérera une reprise en main étatique des crédits de la formation professionnelle. La maîtrise de cette nouvelle politique coercitive serait assurée par une conférence annuelle des territoires. La remise en cause statutaire de la fonction publique territoriale reste la cible privilégiée.
Le Parlement réduirait considérablement son activité législative qui, hors période budgétaire, serait limitée à trois mois. IL y aurait donc moins de lois nouvelles, ce qui laisserait davantage de champ à la réglementation par décrets. Il est clair que la démarche tourne le dos au régime parlementaire. Le Gouvernement serait lui aussi resserré à 15 ministres, et fortement instrumentalisé par le Président de la République qui continuerait à présider les réunions du Conseil des ministres.
Celles-ci seraient plus fréquentes pour assurer une discipline sans faille des ministres. Les ministres seraient évalués chaque année. Pour autant, leurs pouvoirs et surtout leurs cabinets exerceraient une autorité renforcée sur les administrations placées sous leur tutelle. Ce sont les chiffres qui répondent. La France peut être considérée comme étant en moyenne haute mais pas du tout en situation atypique.
Que pensez-vous de la rémunération à la performance, comme moyen de gérer les ressources humaines au sein des services publics? Parler de la rémunération au mérite est provocateur et indécent. Pensez-vous que, en , les praticiens hospitaliers auraient dû rejoindre la Fonction Publique Hospitalière? Le statut général des fonctionnaires a été fondé par la loi du 13 juillet sur la base de quatre choix: Ces choix ont privilégié la notion de responsabilité à tous niveaux.
Je veux illustrer ce propos sur un exemple: Le principe de responsabilité est ici clairement posé, quelque soit le rang hiérarchique. Faut-il modifier ces dispositions pour les améliorer? Pourquoi pas le cas échéant, il faut en débattre. On observe deux tendances lourdes pluriséculaires. Il y a donc une dynamique administrative de long terme. Cela ne saurait conduire à un optimisme béat. Des luttes sociales majeures sont nécessaires pour que cette socialisation soit progressiste et démocratique.
La reconstruction de moyens scientifiques doit faire partie, à mon avis, des revendications du mouvement social, notamment celui des fonctionnaires. Je me bornerai ici à les évoquer en réservant leur explicitation éventuelle au débat. Des améliorations statutaires pourraient notamment concerner: Une redéfinition du champ du recours aux contractuels. Le gouvernement actuel en a fait son moyen principal de la mise en extinction du statut.
Des règles strictes doivent être retenues. La mise en place de multi-carrières. Elles supposent des moyens importants de formation permanente. Rendre effective la garantie fondamentale de mobilité. A commencer par la suppression des dispositions statutaires de la loi Galland de De nombreux dispositifs sont possibles: Ce qui veut dire que la responsabilité syndicale me semble devoir être prioritairement engagée dans ce domaine.
Les modalités de la coopération internationale des fonctions publiques. Sont développement est indispensable. Côté français elle pourrait avoir recours au détachement et donner lieu à des avantages de carrière.
La révision des dispositions en vigueur ne devrait pas se limiter aux dispositions législatives statutaires. Les plus inquiets pensent que ce nouveau coup de semonce pourrait avoir des conséquences dramatiques pour les services publics.
Sans parler de la méthode, qui cristallise les mécontentements. Plus que le statut, ce sont les principes et les valeurs le sous-tendant qui sont les plus importants, explique Anicet Le Pors. Comment voyez-vous la réflexion actuelle sur la fonction publique?
Emmanuel Macron mène sa croisade de manière intelligente, progressive, insidieuse. Ils ont en tête un schéma du genre fonction publique allemande avec ses fonctionnaires alors que la population est plus nombreuse. Tous les autres agents publics sont dans des conventions collectives. Pour atteindre cet objectif, le statut serait progressivement contourné et mis en extinction tout en favorisant le recrutement de contractuels au détriment des fonctionnaires. Bon nombre de présidents de la République et de gouvernements ont voulu réformer la fonction publique.
Pensez-vous que cette fois la démarche va aboutir? Emmanuel Macron veut supprimer postes. Mais, sauf à courir un grand risque politique, il buttera sur un minimum de moyens à concéder pour garantir la cohésion sociale et une satisfaction minimale des besoins sociaux incompressibles. Les cartes ne sont pas toutes du même côté…. Et puis il y a toujours des imprévus en politique. Dans les deux cas la fonction publique territoriale serait perdante. Il est normal que la place du curseur entre unité et diversité fasse débat.
Sa solution peut varier dans le temps. Là est la modernité. Les vigies de la Territoriale ont vertement critiqué la vision très étatiste des quatre axes du chantier ouvert par Edouard Philippe le 1er février. La manifestation avait pourtant débuté dans la grisaille. De fait, aucun des participants à la table-ronde 1 ne croit à un grand soir de la fonction publique.
Le gouvernement a assuré que le statut ne serait pas supprimé. Mais dans la réflexion gouvernementale, le contexte est-il si défavorable à la territoriale? La contradiction entre unicité du cadre de la fonction publique et diversité des trois versants ne devrait pas non plus être un problème. La contradiction entre unicité du cadre de la fonction publique et diversité des trois versants ne devrait pas non plus être un problème: Le risque, ce sont les extrêmes.
Avec la seule unicité, la fonction publique territoriale se trouverait engloutie. Par ailleurs, la fonction publique territoriale offre aussi bien une perspective de carrières tout en permettant de changer de métiers.
Comme le général de Gaulle disait: La contestation du statut général des fonctionnaires est une constante de la vie du statut. Les mêmes déploreront ensuite la mobilité insuffisante entre fonctions publiques. Mais globalement, le statut généra, en dépit des offensives et des transformations souterraines a fait la preuve de sa solidité et de son adaptabilité.
Les soi-disant conclusions des soi-disant experts du CAP 22 étaient prêtes avant même sa première réunion. La deuxième tendance lourde est la socialisation des financements publics pour assurer la cohésion sociale et la couverture de besoins sociaux fondamentaux. Intérêt général, service public et fonction publique ont une histoire, mais ont-ils un avenir?
Le statut actuel des fonctionnaires date de se situe en un point haut du service public. Au début des années , le secteur public fondé à la Libération est augmenté de nouvelles nationalisations.
Une politique de décentralisation est affirmée comme priorité. Un nouveau statut des fonctionnaires, dans la filiation du statut de , approfondit la conception française et en étend le champ à la fonction publique territoriale et la fonction publique hospitalière.
Le service public est affaibli et soumis aux politiques de réduction de la dépense publique. Une socialisation des financements publics pour assurer la cohésion sociale et répondre aux besoins sociaux incompressibles. It has a changeable, maritime climate , similar to Cornwall.
Rainfall occurs regularly but sunny, cloudless days are also common. The temperature difference between summer and winter is about fifteen degrees, but it varies depending on the proximity of the sea. The weather is generally milder on the seacoast than inland but rainfall occurs with the same intensity on both. The Monts d'Arrée , despite their low elevation, have much more rainfall than the rest of the region.
The south coast, between Lorient and Pornic , enjoys more than 2, hours of sunshine per year. Brittany's wildlife is typical of France with several distinctions. On one hand, the region, due to its long coastline, has a rich oceanic fauna, and some birds cannot be seen in other French regions. On the other hand, the species found in the inland are usually common for France, and because Brittany is a peninsula, the number of species is lower in its western extremity than in the eastern part.
A variety of seabirds can be seen close to the seaside, which is home to colonies of cormorants , gulls , razorbills , northern gannets , common murres and Atlantic puffins. Most of these birds breed on isolated islands and rocks and thus are hard to observe. The inland is home to common European species: Like Cornwall , Wales and Ireland, the waters of Brittany attract marine animals including basking sharks , grey seals , leatherback turtles , dolphins, porpoises , jellyfish , crabs and lobsters.
Bass is common along the coast, small-spotted catsharks live on the continental shelf , rattails and anglerfish populate the deep waters. River fish of note include trout , Atlantic salmon , pikes , shades and lampreys. The Breton rivers are also home to beavers and otters and to some invasive American species, such as the coypu which destroys the ecosystem and accelerated the extinction of the European mink. Among the invertebrates, Brittany is notably home to the escargot de Quimper , the freshwater pearl mussel and the white-clawed crayfish.
Today, mammals of note include roe deer , wild boar , foxes, hares and several species of bat. Brittany is widely known for the Breton horse , a local breed of draft horse , and for the Brittany gun dog. The region also has its own breeds of cattle, some of which are on the brink of extinction: The Breton forests, dunes, moorlands and marshes are home to several iconic plants, such as endemic cistus , aster and linaria varieties, the horseshoe vetch and the lotus maritimus.
Brittany has the same education system as the rest of France. As in other French regions, formal education before the 19th century was the preserve of the elite. Before , Brittany did not have a university, and Breton students had to go to Angers , Poitiers or Caen. All the traditional disciplines were taught there: During the 17th century, it had around 1, students. It declined during the 18th century, mostly because Nantes was flourishing with the Atlantic slave trade and paid no attention to its cultural institutions.
A mayor eventually asked the university to be relocated to Rennes , more devoted to culture and science, and the faculties progressively moved there after Napoleon reorganised the French education system in He created new universities and invented two secondary education institutions: A new University of Rennes was progressively recreated during the 19th century. In the meantime, several laws were promoted to open schools, notably for girls. In , Jules Ferry succeeded in passing a law which made primary education in France free, non-clerical laïque and mandatory.
Thus, free schools were opened in almost every villages of Brittany. Jules Ferry also promoted education policies establishing French language as the language of the Republic, and mandatory education was a mean to eradicate regional languages and dialects. In Brittany, it was forbidden for the pupils to speak Breton or Gallo , and the two were strongly depreciated.
Humiliating practices aimed at stamping out the Breton language and culture prevailed in state schools until the late s.
They have taught a few thousand young people from elementary school to high school, and they have gained more and more fame owing to their high level of results in school exams. Besides, Brittany, with the neighbouring Pays de la Loire region, remains a stronghold for Catholic private education with around 1, schools. During the 20th century, tertiary education was developed with the creation of the École centrale de Nantes in , the University of Nantes in , the ESC Bretagne Brest in , the University of Western Brittany in , the École nationale supérieure des télécommunications de Bretagne in and the University of Southern Brittany in Brittany, apart from some areas such as Lorient , Nantes and Saint-Nazaire , has never been heavily industrialised.
Today, fishing and agriculture remain important activities. Brittany has more than 40, agricultural exploitations, mostly oriented towards cattle, pig and poultry breeding, and cereals and vegetables production. The number of exploitations tends to diminish, but as a result, they are merged into very large estates. Brittany is the first producer in France for vegetables green beans , onions, artichokes , potatoes, tomatoes Cereals are mostly grown for cattle feeding.
Wine, especially muscadet , is made in a small region south of Nantes. Brittany is the first region in France for fishing. The activity employs around 9, people, and more than 60 firms work in fish and seafood processing. Although relatively new, the Breton industry has been constantly growing since Food processing meat, vegetables Brittany is the second French region for telecommunication and the fifth for electronics, two activities mainly developed in Rennes , Lannion and Brest.
Tourism is particularly important for the seacoast and Brittany is one of the most visited regions in France. However, these results remain under the French national rate 9. In , Region Brittany 's gross domestic product reached 82 billion euros. It was the seventh richest region in France and it produced 4. The Breton GDP per capita was around 25, euros in In , the population in Region Brittany was estimated to 3,, and Loire-Atlantique had around 1,, inhabitants, thus historical Brittany's population can be estimated at 4,,, the highest in its history.
The region around Rennes and the south are the more attractive areas, whereas the population is declining in the centre and in the westernmost parts. While most of the metropolitan areas are growing, the cities themselves tend to stagnate or regress, such as for Brest , Lorient , Saint-Brieuc and Saint-Malo. In , Ille-et-Vilaine had , inhabitants, it was followed by Morbihan , , inhabitants, Finistère , inhabitants, and Côtes-d'Armor , with , inhabitants. All the other communes had under 20, inhabitants.
Brittany is also characterised by a great number of small towns, such as Vitré , Concarneau , Morlaix or Auray. Loire-Atlantique has two major cities, Nantes , with , inhabitants and an urban area encompassing ,, and Saint-Nazaire , with 67, inhabitants. Loire-Atlantique's population is more rapidly growing than Region Brittany 's and it is the 12th most populated French département.
In , Brittany had around 2. Without the Loire-Atlantique's figures, the Breton population only numbered 2. Instead, Brittany has become attractive, particularly for families, young retired persons and active people over 35 years old.
Brittany does not have a strong share of foreign residents. Breton political parties do not have wide support and their electoral success is small. However, Bretons have a strong cultural identity. It also showed that Breton identity is stronger among people younger than Primary Breton identity is at its lowest among the respondents over Breton self-identification is stronger among people who vote left-wing. It is stronger among employees than employers. French, the only official language of the French Republic, is spoken today by everybody in Brittany, and it is the mother tongue of most people.
Nonetheless, French was not widely known before the 19th century, and two regional languages exist in Brittany: They are separated by a language border that has constantly moved back since the Middle Ages.
Because of their origins and practice, Breton and Gallo can be compared to Scottish Gaelic and Scots language in Scotland. Both have been recognised as "Langues de Bretagne" "languages of Brittany" by the Regional Council of Brittany since Breton is a Celtic language derived from the historical Common Brittonic language, and is most closely related to Cornish and Welsh. Since the 13th century, long before the union of Brittany and France , the main administrative language of the Duchy of Brittany had been French, which had evolved Latin.
Breton remained the language of the rural population, but since the Middle Ages the bourgeoisie , the nobility , and the higher clergy have spoken French. Government policies in the 19th and 20th centuries made education compulsory and, at the same time, forbade the use of Breton in schools to push non-French speakers into adopting the French language.
Nevertheless, until the s Breton was spoken or understood by many of the inhabitants of western Brittany. During the s, Breton schools were opened and the local authorities started to promote the language, which was on the brink of extinction because parents had stopped teaching it to their children.
The Breton language has several dialects which have no precise limits but rather form a continuum. Most of them are very similar to each other, with only some phonetic and lexical differences. The three main dialects spoken in the western end of Brittany, the ' Cornouillais , around Quimper , the Léonard , around Saint-Pol-de-Léon , and the Trégorrois , around Tréguier , are grouped into the KLT group Kerne-Leon-Treger , in opposition to the Vannetais , spoken around Vannes , which is the most differentiated Breton dialect.
Gallo is spoken on the eastern half of Brittany. It is not itself a Celtic language. Like French, it is also descended from Latin and is classified in the Langues d'oïl branch , but has some Celtic influences, particularly in its vocabulary, whereas French has influences from Frankish the Germanic language which preceded Latin in the rest of France.
Unlike Breton, Gallo does not have a long promotion history and it is still often perceived as a poor rural dialect. Moreover, because of its linguistic relationship with Gallo, French imposed itself more easily as the main language in Upper Brittany than in Breton speaking areas.
Gallo was simply felt to be an incorrect way of speaking French rather than a separate language. Gallo transmission from parents to children is extremely low and efforts to standardise and publish books in Gallo did not reverse the decline of the language and its lack of prestige. Gallo is also threatened by the Breton language revival , because Breton is gaining ground in territories that were not previously part of the main Breton-speaking area, and most of all because Breton appears as the national language of Brittany, thus leaving no place for Gallo.
Gallo had never been written before the 20th century, and several writing systems were created. They are however rarely known by the population and signs in Gallo are often unreadable, even for fluent speakers.
In Loire-Atlantique , where Gallo is not promoted at all by the local authorities, many people do not even know the word "Gallo" and have no idea that it has writing systems and publications. The Gallo community is estimated at between 28,  and ,  speakers. The language is taught on a non-compulsory basis in some schools, high-schools and universities, particularly in Ille-et-Vilaine. During the Briton emigration to Brittany, several Christian missionaries, mostly Welsh, came in the region and founded dioceses.
They are known as the "Seven founder saints":. Other notable early missionaries are Gildas and the Irish saint Columbanus. In total, Brittany numbers more than " saints " only a few recognised by the Catholic Church and, since the 19th century at least, it has been known as one of the most devoutly Catholic regions in France, together with the neighbouring Pays de la Loire region. The proportion of students attending Catholic private schools is the highest in France. His feast, the 19 May, is Brittany's national day.
Many distinctive traditions and customs have also been preserved in Brittany. Among them, the " Pardons " are one of the most traditional demonstrations of popular Catholicism.
These penitential ceremonies occur in some villages in Lower Brittany on the feast day of the parish's saint. The penitents form a procession and they walk together to a shrine , a church or any sacred place. Some Pardons are reputed for their length, and they all finish by large meals and popular feasts. There is a very old pilgrimage called the Tro Breizh tour of Brittany , where the pilgrims walk around Brittany from the grave of one of the seven founder saints to another.
Nowadays, however, pilgrims complete the circuit over the course of several years. The most powerful folk figure is the Ankou or the "Reaper of Death". Sometimes a skeleton wrapped in a shroud with the Breton flat hat, sometimes described as a real human being the last dead of the year, devoted to bring the dead to Death , he makes his journeys by night carrying an upturned scythe which he throws before him to reap his harvest.
Sometimes he is on foot but mostly he travels with a cart, the Karrig an Ankou , drawn by two oxen and a lean horse. Two servants dressed in the same shroud and hat as the Ankou pile the dead into the cart, and to hear it creaking at night means you have little time left to live.
As official religious statistics are forbidden in France, there are no official figures about religious practices in Brittany. However, successive polls show that the region tends to be more and more nonreligious. Catholic religion has started to decline after the Second World War , during the urbanisation of Brittany.
Brittany is home to many megalithic monuments; the words menhir and dolmen come from the Breton language. The largest menhir alignments are the Carnac stones. Monuments from the Roman period are rare, but include a large temple in Corseul and scarce ruins of villas and city walls in Rennes and Nantes. Brittany has a large quantity of medieval buildings.
They include numerous Romanesque and French Gothic churches, usually built in local sandstone and granit , castles and half-timbered houses visible in villages, towns and cities.
The most impressive castles can be seen along the border with France, where stand the Château de Fougères , the Château de Vitré , the Château de Châteaubriant and the Château de Clisson. The French Renaissance occurred when Brittany lost its independence. The Renaissance architecture is almost absent in the region, apart in Upper Brittany , close to the border with France.
Major sites include the Château des ducs de Bretagne , the last permanent residence of the dukes, which displays the transition from late Gothic to Renaissance style. The Château de Châteaubriant , a former fortress, was transformed into a vast palace in the Italian style. In Lower Brittany , the medieval style never totally disappeared. However, local innovations permitted some changes and the birth of a particular style. Its most distinctive feature is the parish close , which displays an elaborately decorated church surrounded by an entirely walled churchyard.
Many villages still have their closes, they date from the 16th and 17th centuries and sometimes include an elaborately carved calvary sculpture. During the 17th and the 18th centuries, the main seaports and towns obtained a typical French look, with baroque and neoclassical buildings. Nantes , which was at the time the biggest French harbour, received a theatre, large avenues and quays, and Rennes was redesigned after a fire in At the same period, the wealthy ship-owners from Saint-Malo built many mansions called "Malouinières" around their town.
In rural areas, Breton houses remained simple, with a single floor and a longhouse pattern. They were built with local materials: Slates and reeds were usually used for roofing. During the 19th century, the Breton architecture was mainly characterised by the Gothic Revival and Eclecticism.
Clisson , the southernmost Breton town, was rebuilt in an Italian Romantic style around The Breton lighthouses were mostly built during the 19th century. The lighthouse on the Île Vierge is, with 77 meters, the highest in Europe. At the end of the 19th century, several seaside resorts were created along the coast and villas and hotels were built in historicist , Art Nouveau , and later in the Art Deco styles. These architectures are particularly present in Dinard , La Baule and Bénodet.
Architecture from the 20th century can be seen in Saint-Nazaire , Brest and Lorient , three cities destroyed during the Second World War and rebuilt afterwards, and in the works of the Breton nationalist architects like James Bouillé and Olier Mordrel. Until the 19th century, Catholicism had been the main inspiration for Breton artists. The region has a great number of baroque retables , made between the 17th and the 19th century.
Breton sculptors were also famous for their ship models that served as ex-votos and for their richly decorated furniture, which features naïve Breton characters and traditional patterns.
The box-bed is the most famous Breton piece of furniture. The Breton style had a strong revival between and the Second World War and it was used by the Seiz Breur movement.
The Seiz Breur artists also tried to invent a modern Breton art by rejecting French standards and mixing traditional techniques with new materials. Brittany is also known for its needlework , which can be seen on its numerous headdress models, and for its faience production, which started at the beginning of the 18th century.
Quimper faience is known worldwide for its bowls and plates painted by hand, and other towns, such as Pornic , also maintain a similar tradition. The potteries usually feature naïve Breton characters in traditional clothing and daily scenes. The designs have a strong traditional Breton influence, but Orientalism and Art Deco have also been used. Because of its distinct culture and beautiful landscapes, Brittany has inspired many French artists since the 19th century.
The Pont-Aven School , which started to emerge in the s and lasted until the beginning of the 20th century, had a decisive influence on modern painting. The artists who settled in Pont-Aven wanted to break away from the Academic style of the École des Beaux-Arts and later from Impressionism when it began to decline.
Before them, Brittany had also been visited by Academic and Romantic painters like Jean Antoine Théodore de Gudin and Jules Achille Noël who were looking for dramatic seascapes and storms. Since the early s, Brittany has experienced a tremendous revival of its folk music.
Numerous festivals were created, along with smaller fest-noz popular feasts. The bagado ù , bands composed of bagpipes , bombards and drums including snare , are also a modern creation, inspired by the Scottish pipe bands. The Lann-Bihoué bagad, one of the most well-known, belongs to the French Navy. It is the only one that does not take part to the annual bagadoù competitions.
Celtic harp is also common, as are vocals and dances. The Kan ha diskan is the most common type of singing. The performers sing calls and responses while dancing. Breton dances usually imply circles, chains or couples and they are different in every region.
The oldest dances seem to be the passepied and the gavotte , and the newest ones derive from the quadrille and French Renaissance dances. In the s, several Breton artists started to use contemporary patterns to create a Breton pop music. Among them, Alan Stivell highly contributed to popularise the Celtic harp and Breton music in the world. He also used American rock and roll in his works and influenced s Breton bands such as Kornog , Gwerz and Tri Yann , who revived traditional songs and made them popular across France.
Soldat Louis is the main Breton rock band and the most famous [ according to whom? Yann Tiersen , who composed the soundtrack for Amélie , the Electro band Yelle and the avant-garde singer Brigitte Fontaine are also from Brittany. The 19th-century composer Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray was one of the first western European composers to be influenced by what is now known as world music.
Brittany is closely associated with the Matter of Britain and King Arthur. According to Wace , Brocéliande is located in Brittany and it is nowadays considered to be Paimpont forest. There, ruins of a castle surrounded by a lake are associated with the Lady of the Lake , a dolmen is said to be Merlin 's tomb and a path is presented as Morgan le Fay 's Val sans Retour.
Tristan and Iseult are also said to have lived in Brittany. Another major Breton legend is the story about Ys , a city swallowed by the ocean. Breton literature before the 19th century was mostly oral.
The oral tradition entertained by medieval poets died out during the 15th century and books in Breton were very rare before At that time, local writers started to collect and publish local tales and legends and wrote original works. Published between and the Second World War , the literary journal Gwalarn favoured a modern Breton literature and helped translating widely known novels into Breton.
After the war, the journal Al Liamm pursued that mission. Breton literature in French includes 19th-century historical novels by Émile Souvestre , travel journals by Anatole Le Braz , poems and novels by Charles Le Goffic , the works of the singer-songwriter Théodore Botrel and of the maritime writer Henri Queffélec. The Asterix comics, set during the time of Julius Caesar and written in the second half of the twentieth century, are set in Armorica, now Brittany. The Museum of Brittany, located in Rennes , was founded in Its collections are mainly dedicated to the history of the region.
Museums dedicated to Prehistory and local megaliths are located in Carnac and Penmarch , while several towns like Vannes and Nantes have a museum presenting their own history. The Museums of Fine Arts of Brest and Quimper offer similar collections, with large quantities of French painting together with the works of some Italian and Dutch artists. Contemporary sculptures can be seen in the park around the Château de Kerguéhennec, in Bignan.
Museums in Saint-Malo , Lorient and Douarnenez are dedicated to ships and maritime traditions and history. The Musée national de la Marine has a large annexe in Brest and a submarine is opened to visitors in Lorient. In the same town, it is also possible to visit the Keroman Submarine Base built in , and the Cité de la voile Éric Tabarly , a museum dedicated to sailing. Brittany has a vibrant calendar of festivals and events.
The Festival Interceltique de Lorient welcomes each year participants all the Celtic nations and their diasporas. La Folle Journée , in Nantes , is the largest classical music festival in France. The Breton culture is highlighted during the Fête de la Bretagne , which occurs in many places around Saint-Yves's day 19 May , and during the Festival de Cornouaille in Quimper.
Several towns also organise historical re-enactments and events celebrating local traditions, such as the Filets Bleus in Concarneau which celebrates fishing.
Brittany also has some film festivals like the Three Continents Festival in Nantes. The Utopiales international science fiction festival is held in the same city. Brest and Douarnenez both organise large tall ship meetings.
Football , cycling and sailing are the three most popular sports in Brittany. Professional footballers coming from the region also form the Brittany national football team which sometimes plays with national teams.
Several Bretons have won the Tour de France: Sailing is particularly important for sea-resorts like La Trinité-sur-Mer , Pornichet , Concarneau , Lorient and the îles de Glénan , where a prestigious school is located. A great number of Bretons have become acclaimed sailors, such as: The Solitaire du Figaro stages often start in Brittany. Gouren , a style of folk wrestling , is the most popular Breton sport. The Boule bretonne is related to pétanque.
The Palets , common in Upper Brittany and in other French regions, is also related to pétanque, but players use iron disks instead of balls and they have to throw them on a wooden board. Although Muscadet and Gros Plant white wines are produced south of the Loire , the traditional drink of Brittany is cider.
Brittany is the second-largest cider-producing region in France. Brittany also has a long beer-brewing tradition, tracing its roots back to the 17th century. Young artisanal brewers are keeping a variety of beer types alive,  such as Coreff de Morlaix , Tri Martolod and Britt.
Stronger alcohols include the chouchen , a sort of mead made with wild honey, and an apple eau de vie called lambig. Crêpes and galettes are the two most iconic Breton dishes. The crêpes, made and served with butter, are eaten for dessert and the galettes are usually salty and made with buckwheat. They traditionally replaced bread as basic food and they can be served with cheese, sausages, bacon, mushrooms or eggs. They can be accompanied by Breton buttermilk called lait ribot.
Brittany also has a dish similar to the pot-au-feu known as the kig ha farz , which consists of stewed pork or beef with buckwheat dumplings. Surrounded by the sea, Brittany offers a wide range of fresh seafood and fish, especially mussels and oysters. Among the seafood specialities is a fish stew called cotriade.
The beurre blanc sauce, invented in Saint-Julien-de-Concelles , close to Nantes , is often served with fish. Brittany is also known for its salt, mainly harvested around Guérande and used in butter and milk caramels. The region is notable for its biscuit factories, many towns having their own: They usually make their biscuits with salted butter and sell them in iron boxes. Famous Breton pastries include the kouign amann "butter cake" in Breton made with bread dough and high quantities of butter and sugar, and the far , a sort of sweet Yorkshire pudding usually made with plums.
Until the s, the Breton road network was poor because maritime and rail transport prevailed. The French president Charles de Gaulle implemented a major road construction plan in the and Brittany received over 10 billion francs of investments during 25 years. The Breton motorways are not toll roads , contrarily to the usual French highways. The main road artery linking cities and other settlements along the north coast is the Route nationale 12 which connects the cities of Rennes , Saint-Brieuc , Morlaix and Brest.
It also provides a link to southern Normandy , terminating in Paris. In south Brittany the Route nationale performs a similar role along the south coast providing connections between Nantes , Vannes , Lorient , Quimper and Brest. The Route nationale crosses the centre of the peninsula and connects Rennes to Loudéac , Morlaix and Châteaulin , and the Route nationale links Rennes to Vannes. These highways are standard French toll road.
The biggest Breton airport is Nantes Atlantique Airport. The Brest Bretagne Airport is the second airport in Brittany. Others smaller airport operates domestic flights in Quimper , and Lannion. There are ferry services that take passengers, vehicles and freight to Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Channel Islands. Cycling has always been one of the main sports of Brittany, but leisure cycling and the infrastructure to support it have been growing extremely rapidly. An extensive network of cyclepaths and recommended cycleroutes has opened up all over the region.
Some of these are routes using mainly smaller roads and both signposted and maintained by communes individually, but many are based on dedicated cyclepaths often formed by converting disused railway tracks. These help form routes such as 'Vélodyssée' from Roscoff to Nantes and several major routes under the 'V' label following signs V1, V2 etc.
As a general rule cyclists are very well respected in the region and many larger towns have cycle-lanes - however traffic is 'cycle friendly' even in their absence.
The modern flag of Brittany was designed in It is called Gwenn ha Du "white and black" in Breton and it features eleven ermine spots their number may vary and nine stripes, the black ones represent the Breton speaking historical dioceses, and the white ones symbolise the gallo speaking dioceses. The flag was created to replace the traditional ermine plain standard, considered too aristocratic and royalist.
It was inspired by the American flag and the British Red Ensign. Apart from the ermine flag, Breton historic banners include the Kroaz Du , a white flag with a black cross, the perfect negative of the Cornish flag. Ermine had been used in Brittany long before, and there is no clue about its origin. It was probably chosen by the dukes because of its similarity with the French fleur-de-lis. The ermine , or stoat, as an animal became the badge of John IV at the end of the 14th century.
It appeared later on numerous locations, including churches and castles. According to popular traditions, Anne of Brittany was hunting with her court when she saw a white ermine who preferred to die than to cross a dirty marsh. This episode would have inspired the duchess' motto: It re-employs both the Welsh anthem 's music and that of "Bro Goth agan Tasow" the national anthem of Cornwall; its lyrics were written at the end of the 19th century.
Colloquial Breton emblems include the Celtic triskelion , the menhirs and dolmens , local dishes such as the galettes , the Bigouden headdress and the traditional black round hat, the fisherman and his yellow raincoat, etc.
Merlin 's tomb in the Brocéliande forest, Paimpont.